Science & Economics of Trails and Mountain Biking

Key Studies about Physical Impacts of Mountain Biking and Hiking
NEMBA Review of the Scientific Literature Regarding the Impacts of Mountain Biking.

Environmental Impacts of Mountain Biking: Science Review and Best Practices. By Jeff Marion and Jeremy Wimpey. Paper presented at SEMBCO. 2011.

Impacts of Experimentally Applied Mountain Biking and Hiking on Vegetation and Soil of a Deciduous Forest. (2001). Edon Thurston & Richard Reader.  Environmental Management Vol. 27, No. 3, pp. 397– 409. University of Guelph.

Perception and Reality of Conflict: Walkers and Mountain Bikes on the Queen Charlotte Track in New Zealand. (2002). Gordon Cessford. Monitoring and Managing Vistor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas. Conference Proceedings edited by A. Amberger, C. Brandenburg & A. Muhar. Pp. 102-108.

Off-Road Impacts of Mountain Bikes: A Review and Discussion. Science & Research Series. No. 92, (1995) by Gordon R. Cessford.

Erosional impact of hikers, horses, motorcycles, and off-road bicycles on mountain trails in Montana, (1994). Wilson, John, and Seney, Joseph. Mountain Research and Development, Volume 14, Issue 1, p. 77-88.

Erosional impact of hikers, horses, motorcycles, and off-road bicycles on mountain trails in Montana, (1991). Seney, Joseph. Master of Science degree in Earth Science Thesis. Montana State University, Bozeman.

"A Comparative Study of Impacts to Mountain Bike Trails in Five Common Ecological Regions of the Southwestern U.S." By Dave D. White, M. Troy Waskey, Grant P. Brodehl and Pamela E. Foti.  Journal of Park and Recreation Administration. Summer 2006. Volume 24, Number 2. pp. 21-41.
Natural Resource Impact of Mountain Biking: A summary of the scientific studies that compare mountain biking to other forms of trail travel. By Gary Sprung, IMBA 2004.

Assessing and Understanding Trail Degradation: Results from Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area. (2006). Jeffery L. Marion. National Park Service, Final Research Report.

The Influence of use-related, environmental, and managerial factors on Soil Loss from Recreational Trails, (2008). Olive, Nathaniel D., and Marion, Jeffrey L.. Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 90, Issue 3, p. 1483-1493,

Planning and Managing Environmentally Friendly Mountain Bike Trails. By Pamela E. Foti, Dave D. White,Grant P. Brodehl, Troy Waskey, and Elladee Brown. 2006.

Conflicts on Multiple-Use Trails: Synthesis of the Literature and State of the Practice. By Roger L. Moore (1994). This study, funded by the Federal Highway Administration, makes a good review of the literature and points to numerous ways to mitigate user conflict which is similar to trading forex as explained in this online forex trading website.. It contains much information indicating that mountain biking does not inherently conflict with the experiences of other trail users..

Off-Road Mountain Biking: A profile of participants and their recreation setting and experience preferences. A report by Gordon Cessford, Department of Conservation, New Zealand. 1995.

Mountain Biking:Issues and Actions for USDA Forest Service Managers. by Deborah J. Chavez; USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station

Assessing Uncertainty in Expert Judgments About Natural Resources. by David Cleaves, USDA Forest Service Southern Forest Experiment Station

Economic Impacts

Quiet Recreation on BLM-Mananged Land: Economic Contribution 2016. Final Report, March 2016. Pew Charitable Trusted. Prepared by ECONorth

The Economic Impacts of Active Silent Sport Enthusiasts: A case study from northern Wisconsin. January 2014. University of Wisconsin Department of Urban and Regional Planning. Extension Report 14.1. By Dave Berard, Scott Chapin, Alan Hoogasian, Tim Kane, Dave Marcouiller and Tom Wojciechowski.

Trails, Tourism & Local Economies: The Charlemont Experiment. Trails and Tourism  

Economic Impact of Trails:
Economic Benefits of MTB Tourism:
Economic Impacts of Mountain Bike Tourism:
Sea to Sky Mountain Biking Economic Impact Study: Whistler Report
An Economic Impact Analysis of the Coldwater Mountain Bike Trail.