Science & Economics of Trails and Mountain Biking

Impacts of Experimentally Applied Mountain Biking and Hiking on Vegetation and Soil of a Deciduous Forest. (2001). Edon Thurston & Richard Reader.  Environmental Management Vol. 27, No. 3, pp. 397– 409. University of Guelph.

Assessing and Understanding Trail Degradation: Results from Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area. (2006). Jeffery L. Marion. National Park Service, Final Research Report.

"A Comparative Study of Impacts to Mountain Bike Trails in Five Common Ecological Regions of the Southwestern U.S." By Dave D. White, M. Troy Waskey, Grant P. Brodehl and Pamela E. Foti.  Journal of Park and Recreation Administration. Summer 2006. Volume 24, Number 2. pp. 21-41.

Planning and Managing Environmentally Friendly Mountain Bike Trails. By Pamela E. Foti, Dave D. White,Grant P. Brodehl, Troy Waskey, and Elladee Brown. 2006.

Natural Resource Impact of Mountain Biking: A summary of the scientific studies that compare mountain biking to other forms of trail travel. By Gary Sprung, IMBA 2004.

Off-Road Impacts of Mountain Bikes: A Review and Discussion. SCIENCE & RESEARCH SERIES NO.92, (1995) by Gordon R. Cessford  This is one of the best reviews and syntheses of the scientific literature on the physical and social impacts of mountain biking. It's a must read for anyone seeking info on mountain bike impact. The bibliography is excellent.

Conflicts on Multiple-Use Trails: Synthesis of the Literature and State of the Practice. By Roger L. Moore (1994). This study, funded by the Federal Highway Administration, makes a good review of the literature and points to numerous ways to mitigate user conflict. It contains much information indicating that mountain biking does not inherently conflict with the experiences of other trail users..

Off-Road Mountain Biking: A profile of participants and their recreation setting and experience preferences. A report by Gordan Cessford, Department
of Conservation, New Zealand. 1995.

Mountain Biking:Issues and Actions for USDA Forest Service Managers. by Deborah J. Chavez; USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station

Assessing Uncertainty in Expert Judgments About Natural Resources. by David Cleaves, USDA Forest Service Southern Forest Experiment Station

The Economic Impacts of Active Silent Sport Enthusiasts: A case study from northern Wisconsin. January 2014. University of Wisconsin Department of Urban and Regional Planning. Extension Report 14.1. By Dave Berard, Scott Chapin, Alan Hoogasian, Tim Kane, Dave Marcouiller and Tom Wojciechowski.